By Arthur Cox
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Extra info for A system of optical design
The problem then is to solve for the minimum cost allocation of transmission capacity in (a) (or addition of new capacity to an existing set of capacities) that supports both the routing and protection of all demands in (b). Once a network is built, however, the nearer-term operational problem is one of routing and configuring protection arrangement so that demands that actually arrive are both served and protected within the current as-built capacity. Over the life of a network these two phases are revisited in a constant cycle.
For example, to drop a DS-1 from a DS-3, the entire DS-3 signal must undergo two stages of demultiplexing, first to the DS-2 rate and then to the DS-1 rate. Once the desired signal has been dropped, the remaining DS-1s must be remultiplexed to the DS-3 level. Another limitation is the lack of a uniform set of functions for network performance monitoring, fault detection, provisioning and other network management features and capabilities. 2 SONET / SDH Just prior to the advent of SONET standards, systems based on PDH rates and pulse-stuffing multiplexing techniques had reached 12 x DS-3 (Nortel FD-565) and 24 x DS-3 (Rockwell LTS-1200) rates.
Aside from the fact that the packet flows remain asynchronous and statistically multiplexed, in all logical regards, once the IP packets for that destination are encapsulated with a label and put in the appropriate outgoing queue from the egress node, it is like they have been dropped into a dedicated pipe or tunnel direct to the destination. The train of switching relationships written in the label-swapping tables en route creates a hard-wired sequence of relays that is fully amenable to hardware implementation at each node, and referred to as a Label Switched Path (LSP).
A system of optical design by Arthur Cox